20th Century CE - 14th & 15th Hijrah
1901:Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.
1901:French forces occupy Morocco.
1904:Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference of Algeciras.
1904:The Presian constitution is promoted.
1905:The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with it's main sphere of influence in Egypt.
1907:The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
1912:The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.
1914:Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.
1914:World War I.
1916:Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.
1918:Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.
1918:World War I ends on November 11.
1918:Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.
1921:Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
1921:Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
1921:Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif".
1922:Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.
1924:The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.
1924:King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.
1925:Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.
1926:Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) assumes title of King of Najd and Hijaz.
1927:Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
1928:Turkey is declared a secular state.
1928:Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood.
1932:Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
1934:War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.
1934:Peace treaty of Ta'if.
1934:Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
1935:Iran becomes the official name of Persia.
1936:Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.
1939:World War II.
1941:British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.
1943:Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.
1945:End of World War II.
1946:Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.
1947:Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.
1948:Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.
1949:Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated.
1951:Libya becomes independent.
1952:King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.
1953:General Zahedi leads coup against Musaddeq, Shah returns to power.
1953:Death of King Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) of Saudi Arabia.
1953:The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina.
1956:Morocco becomes independent.
1956:Tunisia becomes independent.
1957:The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes becomes president.
1957:Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.
1962:Algeria becomes independent.
1962:Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
1965:Malcom X is assassinated.
1968:The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed.
1969:King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
1973:King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
1975:Death of Elijah Mohammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America.
1975:Wallace Warith Deen Mohammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy renaming it American Muslim Mission.
1978:Imam Musa Sadr is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya. He was the religious leader of the Lebanese Twelve-Imam Shi'ites. He promoted the resurgence of Shi'ites in Lebanon and set the foundation of Amal.
1979:The Shah leaves Iran on January 15, thus bringing the Pahlavi dynasty to an end.
1979:On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the 15th Islamic century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University of Medina attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a certain prophetic Hadith: "A man of the people of Medina will go forth, fleeing to Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and will lead him forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the rukn (Black Stone corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim." They hold the Haram of Mecca against the army for two weeks. Sixty-three of the 300 fanatics are captured alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators are all put to death.
1980:Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war.
1989:Iran-Iraq comes to an end with much loss of life.
1990:Military annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, under Ba'athist leader Saddam Hussain, is reversed in by a coalition of United States-led forces.
January 8 - Bosnian Serbs declare their own republic within Bosnia and Herzegovina in protest to the decision by Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats to seek EC recognition.
February 18 - Iraq disarmament crisis: The Executive Chairman of UNSCOM details Iraq's refusal to abide by UN Security Council disarmament resolutions.
April 6 - Serbian troops, as a result of a mass rebellion of Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina against the Bosnian declaration of independence from Yugoslavia, besiege the city of Sarajevo (the beginning of the Bosnian War).
December 6 - Hindu activists destroy the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, India, triggering religious violence around the country.
January 19 - Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq refuses to allow UNSCOM inspectors to use its own aircraft to fly into Iraq, and begins military operations in the demilitarized zone between Iraq and Kuwait, and the northern No-Fly Zone. US forces fire approximately 40 Tomahawk cruise missiles at Baghdad factories linked to Iraq's illegal nuclear weapons program. Iraq then informs UNSCOM that it will be able to resume its flights.
April 30 - The World Wide Web was born at CERN
September 13 - PLO leader Yasir Arafat and Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin shake hands in Washington D.C., after signing a peace accord.
April 25 - End of term for Sultan Azlan Muhibbudin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yusuff Izzudin Shah Ghafarullahu-lahu as 9th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
April 26 - Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan becomes the 10th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
June 15 - Israel and the Vatican establish full diplomatic relations.
July 25 - Israel and Jordan sign the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, which formally ends the state of war that has existed between the nations since 1948.
September-October - Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq threatens to stop cooperating with UNSCOM inspectors and begins to once again deploy troops near its border with Kuwait. In response, the U.S. begins to deploy troops to Kuwait.
January - Javed Ahmad Ghamidi launches the first Islamic e-periodical, "Renaissance: A Monthly Islamic Journal
July 11 - Bosnian Serbs march into Srebrenica while UN Dutch peacekeepers leave. The Srebrenica massacre was killing of up to an estimated 8,106 Bosniak males, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina by a Serb Army of Republika Srpska under general Ratko Mladić including Serbian state special forces
January 20 - Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.
September 27 - In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul, after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.
December 27 - Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram air base, which solidifies their buffer zone around Kabul.
January 19 - Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years, and joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city.
April 22 - Haouch Khemisti massacre in Algeria; 93 villagers killed.
April 23 - Omaria massacre in Algeria; 42 villagers killed.
May 10 - An earthquake near Ardekul, in northeastern Iran, kills at least 2,400.
July 27 - Si Zerrouk massacre in Algeria; about 50 people killed.
August 20 - Souhane massacre in Algeria; over 60 people killed, 15 kidnapped.
September 5 - Beni-Messous massacre in Algeria; over 87 killed.
September 22 - Bentalha massacre in Algeria; over 200 villagers killed.
October 12 - Sidi Daoud massacre in Algeria; 43 killed at a fake roadblock.
November 27 - Second Souhane massacre in Algeria; 25 killed.
January 4 - Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 4 January 1998 in Algeria; over 170 killed in three remote villages.
January 11 - Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria; over 100 people killed.
February - Iraq disarmament crisis: The United States Senate passes Resolution 71, which urged President Bill Clinton to "take all necessary and appropriate actions to respond to the threat posed by Iraq's refusal to end its weapons of mass destruction programs."
March 14 - An earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale hits southeastern Iran.
April 6 - Pakistan tests medium-range missiles capable of hitting India.
May 11 - India conducts three underground nuclear tests in Pokhran, including one thermonuclear device.
May 28 - Nuclear testing: In response to a series of Indian nuclear tests, Pakistan explodes five nuclear devices of its own in the Chaghai hills of Baluchistan.
August 7 - 1998 U.S. embassy bombings: Bombing of the United States embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya kills 224 people and injures over 4,500. The bombings were linked to Osama Bin Laden.
August 20 - 1998 U.S. embassy bombings: The United States military launches cruise missile attacks against alleged Al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical plant in Sudan. The al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum is destroyed in the attack.
September 3 - In Somalia, the southern port of Kismayo is declared the capital of independent Jubaland under Muhamed Said Hersi.
November 20 - A court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused Osama bin Laden "a man without a sin" in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.
February 7 - King Hussein of Jordan dies from cancer, and his son Abdullah II inherits the throne.
February 16 - In Uzbekistan, a bomb explodes and gunfire is heard at the government headquarters, in an apparent assassination attempt against President Islam Karimov.
March 20 - Serbs launch an offensive in Kosovo.
April 7 - Kosovo War: Kosovo's main border crossings are closed by Serbian forces to prevent ethnic Albanians from leaving.
April 9 - Ibrahim Baré Maînassara, president of Niger, is assassinated.
April 25 - End of term for Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman as the tenth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
April 26 - Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj, Sultan of Selangor, becomes the eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
May 27 - The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague, Netherlands indicts Slobodan Milošević and four others for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Kosovo.
June 9 - Kosovo War: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and NATO sign a peace treaty.
July 23 - Mohammed VI of Morocco becomes king, upon the death of his father Hassan II.
October 12 - Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attempts to dismiss Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf and install ISI director Khwaja Ziauddin in his place. Senior Army generals refuse to accept the dismissal. Musharraf, who was out of the country, attempts to return in a commercial airliner. Sharif orders the Karachi airport to not allow the plane to land. The generals lead a coup, ousting Sharif's administration and taking over the airport. The plane lands with only a few minutes of fuel to spare, and Musharraf takes control of the government.
December 12 - President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir of Sudan dismisses the National Assembly, during an internal power struggle between him and speaker of the Parliament Hasan al-Turabi.